UV-C Reference Papers
Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond
“Owing to the worldwide increase in antibiotic resistance, researchers are investigating alternative anti-infective strategies to which it is supposed microorganisms will be unable to develop resistance. Light based anti-infective therapies have become a rapidly growing area of interest in recent years. The reasons for this rise in interest are manifold; multi antibiotic resistance is the predominant growth-driving factor.”
Yin R, Dai T, Avci P, et al. Light based anti-infectives: ultraviolet C irradiation, photodynamic therapy, blue light, and beyond. Current opinion in pharmacology. 2013;13(5):10.1016/j.coph.2013.08.009. doi:10.1016/j.coph.2013.08.009.
UVC radiation as an effective disinfectant method to inactivate human papillomaviruses
“The automated Antigermix S1 device showed excellent efficacy against HPV16 and HPV18 whereas OPA showed minimal efficacy. While HPV is highly resistant to OPA, high-level UVC radiation offers an effective disinfection prac- tice for ultrasound probes. Our results suggest that healthcare facilities using endocavitary ultrasound probes need to strongly consider disinfection methods that are effective against HPV.”
Meyers C, Milici J, Robison R (2017) UVC radiation as an effective disinfectant method to inactivate human papillomaviruses. PLoS ONE 12 (10): e0187377. pone.0187377
Evaluation of a new disinfection procedure for ultrasound probes using ultraviolet light
“The mean microbial reduction was 100% for UVC, 98.4% for antiseptic wiping and 87.5% for dry wiping (P<0.001)... UVC disinfection of ultrasound probe may provide a useful method for reducing the bacterial load under routine conditions.”
Evaluation of a new disinfection procedure for ultrasound probes using ultraviolet light. Kac, G. et al. Journal of Hospital Infection , Volume 65 , Issue 2 , 163 - 168
European Committee for Medical Ultrasound Safety (ECMUS) - Best Practice
Recommendations for cleaning and disinfection of ultrasound transducers whilst maintaining transducer integrity
“Automatic processes such as ... ultraviolet (UV, e.g. Antigermix) methods are preferred, where approved by the manufacturer to guarantee a reproducible standardised and fast process”
2017 ECMUS | | ECMUS Editors : C Kollmann & K Salvesen
Ultraviolet Light for the Disinfection of Ultrasound Probes: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost- effectiveness, and Guidelines - 24 November 2011
“The authors reported the greatest microbial reduction and the greatest percentage of negative specimens following the UVC method, consequently affirming that UVC may be an effective means of disinfecting ultrasound probes.”
Ultraviolet Light for the Disinfection of Ultrasound Probes: Clinical Effectiveness, Cost-effectiveness, and Guidelines - 24 November 2011
Evaluation of a new disinfection method for ultrasound probes used for regional anesthesia: ultraviolet C light
The results of the in vitro bacteriologic study showed that
the disinfection protocol we evaluated was an efficient
technique for sterilizing contaminated ultrasound probes
and promoted high-level bacteriologic safety under rou-
tine clinical conditions. We confirm that UV-C irradiation
meets the specifications of an easy, reproducible, and effi-
cient sterilization method for ultrasound probes.
Evaluation of a new disinfection method for ultrasound probes used for regional anesthesia: ultraviolet C light. Sébastien Bloc, Luc Mercadal, Thierry Garnier, Bernard Komly, Pascal Leclerc, Bertrand Morel, Claude Ecoffey, Gilles Dhonneur
J Ultrasound Med. 2011 Jun; 30(6): 785–788.
Evaluation of ultraviolet C for disinfection of endocavitary ultrasound transducers persistently contaminated despite probe covers
"After cleaning with a towel impregnated with a disinfectant spray and disinfecting with UVC light, neither bacterial pathogenic flora nor viral genome was recovered from the probe.
A disinfection procedure consisting of cleaning with a disinfectant-impregnated towel followed by disinfection with UVC may provide a useful method for disinfecting endocavitary ultrasound probes."
Evaluation of ultraviolet C for disinfection of endocavitary ultrasound transducers persistently contaminated despite probe covers. Guillaume Kac, Isabelle Podglajen, Ali Si-Mohamed, Aurelia Rodi, Christine Grataloup, Guy Meyer. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2010 Feb; 31(2): 165–170. doi: 10.1086/649794
Guidelines for Cleaning Transvaginal Ultrasound Transducers Between Patients
“UVC light is applied ... This results in rapid and complete eradication of bacteria and viruses. The entire transducer is enclosed in the commercially available appliances; hence, the handle is also disinfected.”
Guidelines for Cleaning Transvaginal Ultrasound Transducers Between Patients. Abramowicz, Jacques S. et al. Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology , Volume 43 , Issue 5 , 1076 - 1079